"Ethnoveterinary" refers to the use of traditional ways of classifying, preventing and treating common animal diseases. This typically includes the use of natural substances for veterinary treatments.
Heifer encourages families in our projects to consult local healers and use natural substances to treat their livestock. This is a common practice in rural areas where commercial resources are deficient. The use of commercial substances is more often found in urban locations where the economy is a bit better.
Heifer International's approach to community development is based, in large part, on the use of local livestock breeds, local resources and local knowledge. Indeed, some of the tenets of good development we have learned over more than 70 years is to look inward for social, technical and financial resources before we try to bring outside ideas and materials into the community. We also approach projects with the understanding that most people have the capacity to make improvements in their local situation if they are given the opportunity to do so. In this sense, we see ourselves as facilitators of long-lasting and sustainable change within program communities and not as the ones who do the changes. Heifer recognizes that development is a process and not just a series of projects.
When it comes to animal science, we have learned there is a wealth of traditional knowledge that has provided basic nutrition and health care to animals and people for the past centuries. Especially in remote communities, where money is much less available let alone used, we recognize and use this traditional knowledge. More than bark, leaves and roots, this extends to the choice and management of the correct animal for the conditions that exist. Often, the smaller, local breeds of cattle that don't carry a lot of flesh or gallons of milk can survive in local conditions and on available nutrients much better than improved breeds with the genetic capability to produce more flesh and quantities of milk.
As our communities begin to connect to markets, Heifer has a great opportunity to improve the quality of the livestock they produce. Sometimes this means improved livestock genetics with local animals that can increase production. Or, it might mean shipping in male or female livestock, semen or frozen embryos to use for cross-breeding. With medicine, this means that we move from traditional materials (ethnoveterinary medicine) to commercial products that have a better result, yet greater cost.
No matter what, we have to start where the people are and help them to use their resources to move toward greater production, both in quality and quantity. This is the case with ethnoveterinary medicine. It has a definite place in some of our projects, but it also can be insufficient for other projects.
ETHNO VETERINARY RESOURCES
BOOKS AND ARTICLES
- African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. http://www.africanethnomedicines.net/journal.php, ISSN 0189-6016
- Community Animal Health Worker Manual. D. P. Bhandari, Heifer International 2009.
- Contemporary Relevance of Ethnoveterinary Medical Traditions of India. Proceedings of a Workshop, October 17 and 18, 2005, Karnataka, India. Foundation for Revitalization of Local health Traditions (FRLHT), Bangalore, India. Edited by Dr. M. N. B. Nair. email@example.com
- Creole Remedies of Trinidad and Tobago. Wageningen University PhD thesis, Cheryl Lans.
- Ethnoveterinaria en Guatemala Y Sus Origenes, Veterinarios sin Fronteras - Espana, Editado por Magna Terrra Editores S.A. ISBN: 99922-69-95-2
- Ethnoveterinary Medicine - A Practical Approach for the treatment of cattle diseases in East and West Africa, Agromisa Foundation draft, restricted edition, Wageningen, 2006.
- Ethnoveterinary Medicine in Asia - An information Kit on Traditional Health Care Practices, IIRR, 1994. (Heifer participated as one of five agencies in the preparation of this set of four manuals.)
- Ethnoveterinary Medicine in Kenya - A Field Manual of Traditional Animal Health Care Practices, Communications Officer George Obanyi firstname.lastname@example.org or Librarian Loise Gimoi email@example.com,
IIRR-Africa, P.O. Box 66873, Nairobi, Kenya, Tel: 254-2-442610; Fax: 254-2-441848, Physical address: Brookside Close, Brookside Grove, off Waiyaki Way, Nairobi, Kenya.
- Ethnoveterinary Medicine in Ormaland, Kenya. By Swaleh, Abubakar. 1999. Dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement of the Master of Science Degree in Tropical Animal Production and Health. Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine (CTVM), University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK. 87 pp.
- Ethnoveterinary Practices in Eastern Africa - perspectives and experiences. Published February 2004 by the Community-Based Livestock Initiative Programme (CLIP; firstname.lastname@example.org ), Kenya.
- Ethnoveterinary Medicine Practices in the Northwest Province of Cameroon, by Toyang, Nuwanyakpa, Ndi, Django and Kinyuy, Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor, Vol 3, Issue 3, 1995.
- Ethno-veterinary Research and Development. Edited by Constance M.
McCorkle, Evelyn Mathias, and Tjaart W. Scillhorn van Veen (1996). ITDG Publishing, ISBN 1 85339 326 6
- Indian Ethnoveterinary Medicine - An Overview, Pathik Enterprise, B-8, Akshardham Flat, Harshad Colony Road Opp, Phirag Diamong, PO Siapur, Ahmedabad 382 345, E-mail booking email@example.com, Price India RS 2250.
- Indigenous Knowledge and Development Series - An Annotated Bibliography of Community Animal Healthcare, by Martin, Mathias and McCorkle, ITDG Publishing, 103-105 Southampton Row, London WC1B 4HL, UK firstname.lastname@example.org.
- International Society for Ethnopharmacology. http://www.ethnopharmacology.org/
- Journal of Ethnopharmacology. http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/506035/description#description
- Kenya Medicinal Plants Initiative, contact Prof. Titus K. Mukiama email@example.com
- Manual de Etnoveterinaria en Guatemala, Alfonso Loarca, Armando Caceres 7 Melvin Burgos, Heifer Project International Guatemala y Laboratorio Farmaya, 2007, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Manual de Practicas Veterinarias Tradicionales, Federacion de Organizaciones Populares de Ayora & Heifer Ecuador, 2008
- Manual of Natural Veterinary Medicine, Susan Wynn, Steve Marsden, Elsevier, 11830 Westline Industrial Drive, St. Louis, Mo., 63146-9988.
- Traditional Medicine, Natural Remedies, Anamed, Schafweide 77, 71364 Winnenden, Germany, email@example.com
- Veterinary Herbal Medicine. Susan G. Wynn. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0323029981/sr=8-1/qid=1155747311/ref=sr_1_1/103-8037644-5354206?ie=UTF8.
- Wild Health - How Animals keep themselves well & What we can learn from them, Cindy Engel, www.LoveHealth.org/books/animal-healing.htm
WEB SITES AND E-MAIL LISTS
- Ethnoveterinary Medicine web site. www.ethnovetweb.com
- Ethnoveterinary Medicine (EVM) e-mail list. To subscribe send a blank email to: join-EVM@lyris.nuffic.nl
- www.ethnobotany.nl (herbal medicines for animals reading list)
- Herbal folk remedies for animal health in the Netherlands, A.G.M. van Asseldonk and H. Beijer, ICEB Istanbul August 2005. Institute for Ethnobotany and Zoopharmacognosy, Beek-Ubbergen, NL, http://www.ethnobotany.nl/nieuwe_pagina_1.htm
- SciDev site on Indigenous Knowledge - critically addresses key issues relating to the potential contribution of indigenous knowledge (IK) to science and development. It does so by presenting the experiences and perspectives of those working in the field - through analytical policy briefs and topical opinion articles - as well as providing relevant annotated links to external websites, and offering access to electronic versions of key
reports and documents within the field of IK. http://www.scidev.net/en/agriculture-and-environment/indigenous-knowledge.
If you have any additional questions, please feel free to contact us or you can browse our website at www.heifer.org. Because you care and with your support, together, we have power over poverty and hunger!